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Amino Acids. 2009 May;37(1):29-41. doi: 10.1007/s00726-008-0198-3. Epub 2008 Nov 14.

Advances in protein-amino acid nutrition of poultry.

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  • 1Department of Animal Sciences and Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. dhbaker@uiuc.edu

Abstract

The ideal protein concept has allowed progress in defining requirements as well as the limiting order of amino acids in corn, soybean meal, and a corn-soybean meal mixture for growth of young chicks. Recent evidence suggests that glycine (or serine) is a key limiting amino acid in reduced protein [23% crude protein (CP) reduced to 16% CP] corn-soybean meal diets for broiler chicks. Research with sulfur amino acids has revealed that small excesses of cysteine are growth depressing in chicks fed methionine-deficient diets. Moreover, high ratios of cysteine:methionine impair utilization of the hydroxy analog of methionine, but not of methionine itself. A high level of dietary L: -cysteine (2.5% or higher) is lethal for young chicks, but a similar level of DL: -methionine, L: -cystine or N-acetyl-L: -cysteine causes no mortality. A supplemental dietary level of 3.0% L: -cysteine (7x requirement) causes acute metabolic acidosis that is characterized by a striking increase in plasma sulfate and decrease in plasma bicarbonate. S-Methylmethionine, an analog of S-adenosylmethionine, has been shown to have choline-sparing activity, but it only spares methionine when diets are deficient in choline and(or) betaine. Creatine, or its precursor guanidinoacetic acid, can spare dietary arginine in chicks.

PMID:
19009229
DOI:
10.1007/s00726-008-0198-3
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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