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Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009 Mar 12;364(1517):653-65. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0196.

Non-homologous end joining in class switch recombination: the beginning of the end.

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1
Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by a B-cell-specific factor, activation-induced deaminase, probably through deamination of deoxycytidine residues within the switch (S) regions. The initial lesions in the S regions are subsequently processed, resulting in the production of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). These breaks will then be recognized, edited and repaired, finally leading to the recombination of the two S regions. Two major repair pathways have been implicated in CSR, the predominant non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and the alternative end-joining (A-EJ) pathways. The former requires not only components of the 'classical' NHEJ machinery, i.e. Ku70/Ku80, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, DNA ligase IV and XRCC4, but also a number of DNA-damage sensors or adaptors, such as ataxia-telangiectasia mutated, gammaH2AX, 53BP1, MDC1, the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 complex and the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR). The latter pathway is not well characterized yet and probably requires microhomologies. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge of the predominant NHEJ pathway in CSR and will also give a perspective on the A-EJ pathway.

PMID:
19008195
PMCID:
PMC2660918
DOI:
10.1098/rstb.2008.0196
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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