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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Nov 4;52(19):1567-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.07.052.

Gender differences in clinical manifestations of Brugada syndrome.

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Cardiology Department, The Thorax Institute, Hospital ClĂ­nic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.



We sought to assess differences in phenotype and prognosis between men and women in a large population of patients with Brugada syndrome.


A male predominance has been reported in the Brugada syndrome. No specific data are available, however, concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestations and their role in prognosis.


Patients with Brugada syndrome were prospectively included in the study. Data on baseline characteristics, electrocardiogram parameters before and after pharmacological test, and events in follow-up were recorded for all patients.


Among 384 patients, 272 (70.8%) were men and 112 (29.2%) women. At inclusion, men had experienced syncope more frequently (18%) or aborted sudden cardiac death (6%) than women (14% and 1%, respectively, p = 0.04). Men also had greater rates of spontaneous type-1 electrocardiogram, greater ST-segment elevation, and greater inducibility of ventricular fibrillation (p < 0.001 for all). Conversely, conduction parameters and corrected QT intervals significantly increased more in women in response to sodium blockers (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively). During a mean follow-up of 58 +/- 48 months, sudden cardiac death or documented ventricular fibrillation occurred in 31 men (11.6%) and 3 women (2.8%; p = 0.003). The presence of previous symptoms was the most important predictor for cardiac events in men, whereas a longer PR interval was identified among those women with a greater risk in this series.


Men with Brugada syndrome present with a greater risk clinical profile than women and have a worse prognosis. Although classical risk factors identify male patients with worse outcome, conduction disturbances could be a marker of risk in the female population.

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