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Pediatr Cardiol. 2009 Apr;30(3):352-5. doi: 10.1007/s00246-008-9312-2. Epub 2008 Nov 13.

Fontan patient with plastic bronchitis treated successfully using aerosolized tissue plasminogen activator: a case report and review of the literature.

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Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, CA 92868, USA.


Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon condition characterized by the production of large pale bronchial casts that obstruct the tracheobronchial tree. The cellular content, cohesiveness, and often rubber-like consistency distinguish bronchial casts from the usual mucus plugs found with such disease states as asthma. Plastic bronchitis can be found secondary to many conditions, and a simplified classification scheme organizes it into two groups: an inflammatory type consisting of casts with an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate and an acellular type with a predominance of fibrin distinguished by its relative lack of cellular infiltrate, its mucin predominance, and its appearance only in children with congenital cyanotic heart disease. This report describes a 5-year-old girl who experienced plastic bronchitis 3 months after a Fontan procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome that was treated successfully with aerosolized tissue plasminogen activator.

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