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Syst Synth Biol. 2007 Aug;1(3):109-17. doi: 10.1007/s11693-007-9010-z. Epub 2008 Feb 6.

Laying the foundations for a bio-economy.

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Bio Economic Research Associates, Cambridge, USA,


Biological technologies are becoming an important part of the economy. Biotechnology already contributes at least 1% of US GDP, with revenues growing as much as 20% annually. The introduction of composable biological parts will enable an engineering discipline similar to the ones that resulted in modern aviation and information technology. As the sophistication of biological engineering increases, it will provide new goods and services at lower costs and higher efficiencies. Broad access to foundational engineering technologies is seen by some as a threat to physical and economic security. However, regulation of access will serve to suppress the innovation required to produce new vaccines and other countermeasures as well as limiting general economic growth.

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