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J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991 Feb;39(2):165-71.

Assessment and quality control of incontinence care in long-term nursing facilities.

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Borum Center for Gerontological Research, University of California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90024-1686.


A statistical quality-control process was used to assess how well incontinence management procedures were being implemented by indigenous nursing staff in four nursing homes. Eighty-one incontinent patients were treated with the prompted-voiding toileting procedure. Thirty-six of these patients proved responsive to the toileting procedures, and nursing home staff was instructed to maintain the toileting program for these responsive patients. The first part of the quality-control model involved setting job standards specifying how dry the patients should be if toileted on a 2-hour schedule. Second, a job-monitoring control chart was used to continuously assess how well the job standards were being met. The remaining forty-five patients, who were unresponsive to the toileting protocol, were managed with a 2-hour changing schedule. Job standards specifying how wet (volume) the patient would be if changed on a two-hour basis were set. Control-chart monitoring of these patients urine output assessed how well the changing procedures were being implemented. Incontinence care in nursing homes is difficult to supervise because of problems in measuring how consistently nursing aides change or toilet patients. This paper describes a management system for effective incontinence care.

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