Send to

Choose Destination
Toxicol In Vitro. 2009 Feb;23(1):47-52. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2008.10.001. Epub 2008 Oct 17.

Black ginseng inhibits ethanol-induced teratogenesis in cultured mouse embryos through its effects on antioxidant activity.

Author information

Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Core Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763, Republic of Korea.


Fetal alcohol syndrome is caused by excessive ethanol consumption during pregnancy. We investigated the effect of black ginseng (red ginseng that is subjected to 9 cycles of 95-100 degrees C for 2-3h) on ethanol-induced teratogenesis using an in vitro whole embryo culture system. Postimplantational mouse embryos at embryonic day 8.5 were exposed to ethanol (1 microl/ml) in the presence or absence of black ginseng (1, 10, and 100 microg/ml) for 2 days, and then morphological scoring and real-time PCR analysis were carried out. In ethanol-treated embryos, the total morphological score and individual scores for flexion, heart, fore-, mid-, and hindbrains, otic, optic, and olfactory systems, branchial bars, maxillary and mandibular processes, caudal neural tube, and somites were significantly lower than the control group (p<0.05). Treatment with black ginseng improved most of the morphological scores significantly as compared to ethanol-treated embryos (p<0.05). The mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide GPx, and selenoprotein P were significantly decreased in ethanol-treated embryos, but co-treatment with black ginseng restored the mRNA levels to those of control embryos. These results indicate that black ginseng has a protective effect on ethanol-induced teratogenesis through the augmentation of antioxidative activity in embryos.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center