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Reprod Domest Anim. 2009 Oct;44(5):751-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2008.01065.x. Epub 2008 Sep 20.

Minimal external masculinization in a SRY-negative XX male Podenco dog.

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Departments of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.


Normal mammalian sex differentiation takes place in three genetically controlled steps: chromosomal sex determination (XX or XY), gonadal differentiation and development of the phenotypic sex. Animals are considered to be sex reversed if chromosomal sex determination and gonadal development are not in agreement. In this report, sex reversal is described in a 1.5-year-old Podenco dog that was referred because of suspected recurrent growth of a previously removed os clitoridis in the vulva. With that exception the dog was phenotypically female, but had never been in oestrus and exhibited male behaviour. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a small tubular structure dorsal to the bladder, consistent with a uterus. An ovoid structure resembling a gonad was visible between the right kidney and inguinal canal. Plasma testosterone concentrations before and after GnRH administration indicated the presence of functional testicular tissue. Two testes, each with its epididymis and ductus deferens, and a complete bicornuate uterus were removed surgically. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes showed a normal female karyotype (78, XX). These findings are consistent with the diagnosis of an XX male. PCR analysis of genomic DNA revealed that the SRY gene was absent. In summary, this report describes the first SRY-negative XX male Podenco dog with an almost complete female phenotype despite high basal and stimulated plasma testosterone concentrations. It is hypothesized that the clinical observations in this dog may have been caused by reduced and delayed Müllerian-inhibiting substance secretion and the absence of conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone due to 5alpha-reductase deficiency.

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