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J Neurosci. 2008 Nov 5;28(45):11477-87. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2816-08.2008.

Folate deficiency induces in vitro and mouse brain region-specific downregulation of leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1 and protein phosphatase 2A B(alpha) subunit expression that correlate with enhanced tau phosphorylation.

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Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9073, USA.


Altered folate homeostasis is associated with many clinical and pathological manifestations in the CNS. Notably, folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is essential for methyltransferase-dependent cellular methylation reactions. Biogenesis of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzyme containing the regulatory B(alpha) subunit, a major brain tau phosphatase, is controlled by methylation. Here, we show that folate deprivation in neuroblastoma cells induces downregulation of PP2A leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1 (LCMT-1) expression, resulting in progressive accumulation of newly synthesized demethylated PP2A pools, concomitant loss of B(alpha), and ultimately cell death. These effects are further accentuated by overexpression of PP2A methylesterase (PME-1) but cannot be rescued by PME-1 knockdown. Overexpression of either LCMT-1 or B(alpha) is sufficient to protect cells against the accumulation of demethylated PP2A, increased tau phosphorylation, and cell death induced by folate starvation. Conversely, knockdown of either protein accelerates folate deficiency-evoked cell toxicity. Significantly, mice maintained for 2 months on low-folate or folate-deficient diets have brain-region-specific alterations in metabolites of the methylation pathway. Those are associated with downregulation of LCMT-1, methylated PP2A, and B(alpha) expression and enhanced tau phosphorylation in susceptible brain regions. Our studies provide novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of PP2A methylation and tau. They establish LCMT-1- and B(alpha)-containing PP2A holoenzymes as key mediators of the role of folate in the brain. Our results suggest that counteracting the neuronal loss of LCMT-1 and B(alpha) could be beneficial for all tauopathies and folate-dependent disorders of the CNS.

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