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Eur J Hum Genet. 2009 Feb;17(2):139-46. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2008.206. Epub 2008 Nov 5.

Kallmann syndrome.

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Inserm U567, Département de Génétique et Développement, Institut Cochin, Paris, France.


The Kallmann syndrome (KS) combines hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) with anosmia. This is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease. KAL1, encoding the extracellular glycoprotein anosmin-1, is responsible for the X chromosome-linked recessive form of the disease. Mutations in FGFR1 or FGF8, encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 and fibroblast growth factor-8, respectively, underlie an autosomal dominant form with incomplete penetrance. Finally, mutations in PROKR2 and PROK2, encoding prokineticin receptor-2 and prokineticin-2, have been found in heterozygous, homozygous, and compound heterozygous states. These two genes are likely to be involved both in monogenic recessive and digenic/oligogenic KS transmission modes. Notably, mutations in any of the above-mentioned KS genes have been found in less than 30% of the KS patients, which indicates that other genes involved in the disease remain to be discovered.

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