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J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009 Feb;46(2):278-84. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2008.09.713. Epub 2008 Oct 17.

Time-dependent and ethanol-induced cardiac protection from ischemia mediated by mitochondrial translocation of varepsilonPKC and activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2.

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1
Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305-5174, USA.

Abstract

The cardioprotective effects of moderate alcohol consumption have been well documented in animal models and in humans. Protection afforded against ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R) proceeds through an ischemic preconditioning-like mechanism involving the activation of epsilon protein kinase C (varepsilonPKC) and is dependent on the time and duration of ethanol treatment. However, the substrates of varepsilonPKC and the molecular mechanisms by which the enzyme protects the heart from oxidative damage induced by I/R are not fully described. Using an open-chest model of acute myocardial infarction in vivo, we find that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.5 g/kg) 60 min prior to (but not 15 min prior to) a 30-minute transient ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery reduced I/R-mediated injury by 57% (measured as a decrease of creatine phosphokinase release into the blood). Only under cardioprotective conditions, ethanol treatment resulted in the translocation of varepsilonPKC to cardiac mitochondria, where the enzyme bound aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2). ALDH2 is an intra-mitochondrial enzyme involved in the detoxification of toxic aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and 4-HNE mediates oxidative damage, at least in part, by covalently modifying and inactivating proteins (by forming 4-HNE adducts). In hearts subjected to I/R after ethanol treatment, the levels of 4-HNE protein adducts were lower and JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 activities were diminished relative to the hearts from rats subjected to I/R in the absence of ethanol. Together, this work provides an insight into the mitochondrial-dependent basis of ethanol-induced and varepsilonPKC-mediated protection from cardiac ischemia, in vivo.

PMID:
18983847
PMCID:
PMC2675554
DOI:
10.1016/j.yjmcc.2008.09.713
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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