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Front Neurosci. 2007 Oct 15;1(1):19-42. doi: 10.3389/neuro.01.1.1.002.2007. eCollection 2007 Nov.

Functional maps of neocortical local circuitry.

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1
The Department of Pharmacology, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, London UK. alex.thomson@pharmacy.ac.uk

Abstract

This review aims to summarize data obtained with different techniques to provide a functional map of the local circuit connections made by neocortical neurones, a reference for those interested in cortical circuitry and the numerical information required by those wishing to model the circuit. A brief description of the main techniques used to study circuitry is followed by outline descriptions of the major classes of neocortical excitatory and inhibitory neurones and the connections that each layer makes with other cortical and subcortical regions. Maps summarizing the projection patterns of each class of neurone within the local circuit and tables of the properties of these local circuit connections are provided.This review relies primarily on anatomical studies that have identified the classes of neurones and their local and long distance connections and on paired intracellular and whole-cell recordings which have documented the properties of the connections between them. A large number of different types of synaptic connections have been described, but for some there are only a few published examples and for others the details that can only be obtained with paired recordings and dye-filling are lacking. A further complication is provided by the range of species, technical approaches and age groups used in these studies. Wherever possible the range of available data are summarised and compared. To fill some of the more obvious gaps for the less well-documented cases, data obtained with other methods are also summarized.

KEYWORDS:

EPSP/C (excitatory postsynaptic potential/current); IPSP/C (inhibitory postsynaptic potential/current); cortex; interneuron(e); pyramidal cell; synapse

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