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Chemosphere. 2008 Dec;74(1):70-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.09.024. Epub 2008 Nov 1.

Effects of spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis on a natural population of Daphnia pulex in field microcosms.

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Entente Interdépartementale de Démoustication du Littoral Méditerranéen, Montpellier, France.


Spinosad, a candidate biological larvicide for mosquito control, was evaluated for its effects on a field population of Daphnia pulex, using Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (Bti) as a reference larvicide. Microcosms (125L enclosures) were placed in a shallow temporary oligohaline marsh where D. pulex was present. Three concentrations of spinosad (8, 17 and 33 microg L(-1)) and two concentrations of Bti (0.16 and 0.50 microL L(-1)) were applied (5 replicates per concentration, including the controls). Effects of larvicides on D. pulex were evaluated after 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21d of exposure, through measurements of abundance and individual size. Dissipation of spinosad from the water phase was rapid. Four days after treatment, residue concentration represented 11.8%, 3.9% and 12.7% of the initial exposure level for the nominal concentrations of 8, 17 and 33 microg L(-1), respectively. Spinosyns A and D dissipated at similar rates. Analysis of abundance and size structure of the D. pulex population showed an impact of spinosad. Both survival and size structure were affected. However, at the lowest concentration (8 microg L(-1)), population recovered after the first week. In microcosms treated with Bti, the abundance of D. pulex was not affected but the size structure of the population changed after 21d. As compared to laboratory tests, the use of in situ microcosms improved the environmental risk assessment of larvicides, taking into account the influence of environmental factors (e.g., temperature, light, salinity) and intrinsic capacity of recovery of D. pulex under field conditions.

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