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Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Jan 15;46(2):119-26. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.09.034. Epub 2008 Oct 17.

Detection of protein S-nitrosylation with the biotin-switch technique.

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Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.


Protein S-nitrosylation, the posttranslational modification of cysteine thiols to form S-nitrosothiols, is a principle mechanism of nitric oxide-based signaling. Studies have demonstrated myriad roles for S-nitrosylation in organisms from bacteria to humans, and recent efforts have greatly advanced our scientific understanding of how this redox-based modification is dynamically regulated during physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The focus of this review is the biotin-switch technique (BST), which has become a mainstay assay for detecting S-nitrosylated proteins in complex biological systems. Potential pitfalls and modern adaptations of the BST are discussed, as are future directions for this assay in the burgeoning field of protein S-nitrosylation.

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