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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009 May;33(5):410.e1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.08.012. Epub 2008 Oct 30.

Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt.

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  • 1King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. amshibl@ksu.edu.sa

Abstract

Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) causes considerable morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. This review describes the burden of disease and pneumococcal serotypes/serogroups causing disease in children in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt identified from a literature search from 1990 to 2007. The incidence of IPD in children aged <or=5 years ranged from 3.4 to 53.5 per 100000. Bacteraemia cases were responsible for 61-100% (children <2 years) of total IPD. Pneumococcal meningitis cases ranged from 3% to 25% (<2 years) and from 7% to 30% (<or=5 years). The most common IPD serotypes/serogroups were 14, 23F, 6B, 19F and 6A (<or=5 years). Circulating serotypes/serogroups causing IPD potentially covered by the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) ranged from 49% to 83% (<2 years) and from 61% to 69% (<or=5 years). Penicillin resistance among invasive isolates ranged from 0% to 78%. Case fatality and morbidity rates for pneumococcal meningitis were 0-22% and 10-62%, respectively. Incidence and morbidity data for meningitis and bacteraemia demonstrate a substantial vaccine-preventable burden of IPD in young children. Standardisation of definitions and development of improved regional surveillance/reporting would enable the region to measure better the impact of prevention strategies for IPD, such as infant-based immunisation programmes.

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