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Molecules. 2008 Oct 28;13(10):2674-703. doi: 10.3390/molecules13102674.

Biosynthesis and genetic regulation of proanthocyanidins in plants.

Author information

1
Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, PR China. wheyfey@yahoo.com.cn

Abstract

Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are a group of polyphenolic secondary metabolites synthesized in plants as oligomers or polymers of flavan-3-ol units via the flavonoid pathway. Due to their structural complexity and varied composition, only in the recent years has the study on the biosynthesis and regulation of PAs in plants taken off, although some details of the synthetic mechanism remain unclear. This paper aims to summarize the status of research on the structures of PAs in plants, the genes encoding key enzymes of biosynthetic pathway, the transport factors, the transcriptional regulation of PA biosynthesis and the genetic manipulation of PAs. The problems of this field were also discussed, including the nature of the final "enzyme" which catalyzes the polymerization reaction of PAs and the possible mechanism of how the elementary units of flavanols are assembled in vivo.

PMID:
18971863
PMCID:
PMC6245171
DOI:
10.3390/molecules13102674
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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