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Vaccine. 2008 Dec 9;26(52):6784-90. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.011. Epub 2008 Oct 23.

Murine antibody responses following systemic or mucosal immunization with viable or inactivated Vibrio cholerae.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.


Protocols are described for the induction of strong, consistent serum and mucosal antibody responses to Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following intranasal or oral immunization of adult mice with viable or formalin-killed bacteria. A simplified two-dose schedule for intranasal immunization has been identified, whereby viable bacteria elicit strong serum responses and, most importantly, also induce significant, sustained intestinal IgA responses. Using higher doses of bacteria it was also possible to generate consistently high intestinal and serum anti-LPS responses by the oral route. The efficacy of these immunization schedules was not dependent on co-administration of adjuvant. Gut responses were estimated using two sampling techniques involving the collection of fresh faecal pellets or the preparation of intestinal tissue extracts. The significant correlation between these estimates validates the more convenient approach of measuring intestinal responses using faecal pellet extracts, which allows repeated sampling from the same animals. V. cholerae O1 and O139 were similarly immunogenic by either mucosal route. More intensive immunization schedules for administration of formalin-killed bacteria have also been defined. Using these regimes it was possible to generate serum and gut antibody responses comparable to those elicited by viable V. cholerae. The established immunization protocols will allow evaluation of the systemic and mucosal immunogenicity of new vaccine formulations.

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