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Br J Nurs. 2008 Oct 9-22;17(18):1182-6.

Bladder cancer and smoking. Part 1: addressing the associated risk factors.

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Epsom and St Helier University Hospitals, NHS Trust, St Helier Hospital, Surrey, UK.


This is the first article in a four-part series on bladder cancer and smoking. Bladder cancer is an increasingly common disease, which is estimated to become more prevalent as the population ages. There is a strong association between smoking and bladder cancer ,and while specific industrial chemicals have been linked to the development of this disease, 60% of bladder cancers are estimated to result from smoking. This article provides an overview of the risk factors associated with bladder cancer, particularly smoking. Literature to try and examine how smoking can affect the bladder and lead to the development of bladder cancer, will be discussed. Part 2 of the series will focus on the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. Part 3 concentrates on smoking and health, with an emphasis on perceptions and beliefs, and part 4 looks at increasing awareness and determining the efficacy of health promotion.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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