Send to

Choose Destination
J Virol. 2009 Jan;83(1):262-72. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01827-08. Epub 2008 Oct 22.

Transactivator IE1 is required for baculovirus early replication events that trigger apoptosis in permissive and nonpermissive cells.

Author information

Institute for Molecular Virology, R. M. Bock Laboratories, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1525 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706-1596, USA.


Immediate early viral protein IE1 is a potent transcriptional activator encoded by baculoviruses. Although the requirement of IE1 for multiplication of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is well established, the functional roles of IE1 during infection are unclear. Here, we used RNA interference to ablate IE1, plus its splice variant IE0, and thereby define in vivo activities of these early proteins, including gene-specific regulation and induction of host cell apoptosis. Confirming an essential replicative role, simultaneous ablation of IE1 and IE0 by gene-specific double-stranded RNAs inhibited AcMNPV late gene expression, reduced yields of budded virus by more than 1,000-fold, and blocked production of occluded virus particles. Depletion of IE1 and IE0 had no effect on early expression of the envelope fusion protein gene gp64 but abolished early expression of the caspase inhibitor gene p35, which is required for prevention of virus-induced apoptosis. Thus, IE1 is a positive, gene-specific transactivator. Whereas an AcMNPV p35 deletion mutant caused widespread apoptosis in permissive Spodoptera frugiperda cells, ablation of IE1 and IE0 prevented this apoptosis. Silencing of ie-1 also prevented AcMNPV-induced apoptosis in nonpermissive Drosophila melanogaster cells. Thus, de novo synthesis of IE1 is required for virus-induced apoptosis. We concluded that IE1 causes apoptosis directly or contributes indirectly by promoting virus replication events that subsequently trigger cell death. This study reveals that IE1 is a gene-selective transcriptional activator which is required not only for expedition of virus multiplication but also for blocking of its own proapoptotic activity by upregulation of baculovirus apoptotic suppressors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center