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Eur Urol. 2009 Nov;56(5):837-45. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2008.10.003. Epub 2008 Oct 11.

Expression of the endothelin axis in noninvasive and superficially invasive bladder cancer: relation to clinicopathologic and molecular prognostic parameters.

Author information

1
Institute of Pathology, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The endothelin (ET) axis plays a role in cancer biology and plays a potential role as a target for molecular therapy in urogenital tumours. Alterations of several proteins of the ET axis were detected in invasive bladder cancer.

OBJECTIVES:

To examine the potential role of the expression of ET axis proteins compared to other prognostic parameters (kinase inhibitor 67 [Ki-67], tumour protein 53 [TP53], and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene [FGFR3] mutations) in noninvasive and invasive bladder cancer.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

Tissue microarrays from 154 consecutive patients with pTa-pT2 urothelial bladder cancer were immunohistochemically stained for endothelin 1 (ET-1), endothelin A and B receptors (ET(A)R, ET(B)R), TP53, and Ki-67. FGFR3 mutations were detected by SNaPshot analysis.

MEASUREMENTS:

The results were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and disease-specific survival, overall survival, and recurrence-free survival.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:

Proteins of the ET axis were frequently expressed in bladder cancer (ET-1 in 62% of tumours, ET(A)R in 93% of tumours, and ET(B)R in 84% of tumours). ET-1 expression was strongly correlated with tumour stage (p=0.015), histologic grade (p=0.008), and low proliferation status (p=0.003). ET(A)R immunostaining was only associated with low proliferation status (p=0.015). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significantly longer overall survival for patients with ET-1-expressing tumours (p=0.007). A significantly longer disease-free survival was found in patients with ET(A)R-expressing tumours (p=0.040), whereas ET(B)R expression was significantly correlated to a longer disease-free survival only in subgroups of patients with multifocal tumours (p=0.031), low proliferation index (Ki-67 ≤10; p=0.050), low TP53 expression (≤10; p=0.018), and tumours with an FGFR3 mutation (p=0.026). In the global model for recurrence-free survival, only high-grade (p=0.048) and negative ET(A)R immunoreactivity (p=0.048) were correlated with poor prognosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

In addition to other factors, particularly age at diagnosis and growth pattern, lack of ET-1 expression may be an independent negative prognostic factor for the overall-survival probability of bladder cancer patients. Lack of ET(A)R expression may be an independent negative marker for recurrence-free survival.

PMID:
18945538
DOI:
10.1016/j.eururo.2008.10.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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