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Phytopathology. 2004 Nov;94(11):1172-7. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2004.94.11.1172.

Anatomy of cranberry stem gall and localization of bacteria in galls.


ABSTRACT Cranberry stem gall is characterized by tumors that girdle stems, thereby killing all distal leaves, flowers, and fruit. Bacteria that produce high levels of the plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are associated with and believed to cause cranberry stem gall. The anatomy of naturally occurring galls on woody cranberry plants and galls caused by inoculation of micropropagated cranberry plants with Pantoea agglomerans strain 4/99 was consistent with elevated levels of IAA in plants. Field galls exhibited hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tissue external to the vascular cambium, resulting in extensive stem swelling and splitting of the periderm. Similarly, galls on micropropagated plants contained enlarged cortical parenchyma cells. The current year's xylem vessels in field galls were narrow and dense compared with xylem vessels of healthy stems. Curved xylem elements apparently developed de novo within field galls and galls on inoculated plants. Cavities and fissures in both types of galls contained dense aggregates of bacteria. Treatment of micropropagated plants with synthetic IAA caused hypertrophy of cortical parenchyma and formation of adventitious roots. The results support the hypothesis that IAA-producing bacteria cause cranberry stem gall.

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