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Reprod Toxicol. 2008 Nov-Dec;26(3-4):210-9. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.09.015. Epub 2008 Oct 15.

Perinatal exposure to the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A induces mammary intraductal hyperplasias in adult CD-1 mice.

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  • 1Tufts University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy & Cellular Biology, 136 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA 02111, United States.


Humans are routinely exposed to bisphenol-A (BPA), an estrogenic compound that leaches from consumer products. Given the sensitivity of the developing organism to hormones, exposure of fetuses and infants is a concern. Here, CD-1 mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of BPA during gestation and the lactational period (gestational day 8 through postnatal day 16). At 3, 9 and 12-15 months of age, mammary glands from exposed offspring were examined for structural changes. BPA-exposed females demonstrated altered mammary phenotypes including the appearance of alveolar buds. Additionally, intraductal hyperplasias were observed exclusively in BPA-exposed females. These lesions had the appearance of "beaded" ducts, with epithelial cells present inside the ductal lumen and increased proliferation indexes compared to normal ducts. Similar structures have also been observed following exposure to other estrogens. These results are further evidence that perinatal BPA exposure can alter the morphology of the rodent mammary gland in adulthood.

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