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J Biol Chem. 2008 Dec 26;283(52):36513-21. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M805232200. Epub 2008 Oct 20.

The Ras/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway regulates glucose-dependent assembly of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase in yeast.

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Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.


Vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are ubiquitous, ATP-driven proton pumps that acidify organelles or the extracellular space. A rapid and effective mechanism for regulating V-ATPase activity involves reversible dissociation of the two functional domains of the pump, V1 and V0. This process is best characterized in yeast, where V-ATPases are reversibly disassembled in response to glucose depletion. To identify regulators that control this process in vivo, a genetic screen was performed in yeast to search for mutants that cannot disassemble their V-ATPases when grown in the absence of glucose. This screen identified IRA1 (inhibitory regulator of the Ras/cAMP pathway 1) and IRA2 as essential genes for regulating V-ATPase dissociation in vivo. IRA1 and IRA2 encode GTPase-activating proteins that negatively regulate Ras in nutrient-poor conditions. Down-regulation of Ras lowers cAMP levels by reducing adenylate cyclase activity. Decreased cAMP levels in turn lead to reduced activity of protein kinase A (PKA). Our results show that targeted deletion of IRA2 results in defective disassembly of the V-ATPase in response to glucose depletion, and reexpression of the gene rescues this phenotype. Glucose-dependent dissociation is also blocked in strains expressing the dominant active RAS2val19 allele or in strains deficient for the regulatory subunit of PKA, both of which lead to constitutively active PKA. These results reveal a role for PKA in controlling glucose-dependent V-ATPase assembly in yeast.

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