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Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009 Jan;41(1):214-24. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2008.09.019. Epub 2008 Sep 27.

Dynamic access of the glucocorticoid receptor to response elements in chromatin.

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Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-5055, USA.


Transcriptional activation as a rate-limiting step of gene expression is often triggered by an environmental stimulus that is transmitted through a signaling cascade to specific transcription factors. Transcription factors must then find appropriate target genes in the context of chromatin. Subsequent modulation of local chromatin domains is now recognized as a major mechanism of gene regulation. The interactions of transcription factors with chromatin structures have recently been observed to be highly dynamic, with residence times measured in seconds. Thus, the concept of static, multi-protein complexes forming at regulatory elements in the genome has been replaced by a new paradigm that envisages rapid and continuous exchange events with the template. These highly dynamic interactions are a property of both DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions and are inherent to every stage of the transcriptional response. In this review we discuss the dynamics of a nuclear receptor, and its transcriptional response in the chromatin context.

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