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Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Feb;7(2):156-62. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2008.09.004. Epub 2008 Sep 20.

Development and validation of the patient and clinician sedation satisfaction index for colonoscopy and upper endoscopy.

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Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.



Recent increases in gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures and sedation options show a need for better sedation evaluation. This article describes the development and validation of 2 instruments: the Patient Satisfaction with Sedation Instrument (PSSI) and the Clinician Satisfaction with Sedation Instrument (CSSI) for assessing satisfaction in patients undergoing outpatient upper endoscopy and colonoscopy.


A total of 118 patients who underwent outpatient colonoscopy or esophagogastroduodenoscopy and 22 physicians were recruited across 5 US gastroenterology practices. Physicians completed the CSSI and patients completed the PSSI after each procedure. Patients completed the SF-12 Health Survey, Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire, and Socially Desirable Response Scale; clinicians completed the Observer's Assessment of Alertness Scale after procedures.


Study patients were mostly women (59%), white (88%), had a mean age of 57.5 +/- 15.7 years, and had a colonoscopy (70%). Internal consistency reliabilities assessed result consistencies across test items. Coefficients greater than 0.70 indicate good reliability; greater than 0.85 indicate excellent reliability. Internal consistency reliabilities of the PSSI and CSSI total and subscale scores were greater than 0.76. Correlations were assessed using Pearson product moment correlation. PSSI and CSSI scores were correlated (P < .05). PSSI totals scores were correlated significantly with the SF-12 Health Survey (P < .05), the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (P < .05), and CSSI total scores were correlated with the Observer's Assessment of Alertness Scale (P < .01) and a visual analogue scale (P < .01). PSSI scores were not correlated with the Socially Desirable Response Scale (P > .05).


The PSSI and CSSI provide for feasible, reliable, and valid assessment of procedural sedation satisfaction for outpatient colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopies and can be used for future sedation studies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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