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Vaccine. 2008 Dec 2;26(51):6614-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.09.078.

Seasonal influenza vaccine delivered by intradermal microinjection: A randomised controlled safety and immunogenicity trial in adults.

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Center for Vaccinology, Ghent University and Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

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  • Vaccine. 2010 Nov 23;28(50):8033.


Influenza vaccines remain largely underused. A promising alternative to current intramuscular vaccines is a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) delivered using a microinjection system to offer a less invasive and possibly more acceptable vaccination. A phase II, multicentre, randomised open-label study in 978 healthy adults (18-57 years) evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of intradermal TIV. Subjects received a 0.1 ml injection of intradermal TIV, containing 9 microg of haemagglutinin (HA) per strain (n = 588) or a conventional 0.5 ml intramuscular vaccine (15 microg of HA/strain; n = 390). Intradermal TIV induced non-inferior humoral immune responses against all three strains and superior responses against both A strains (H1N1, H3N2) compared with the control. Both vaccines were well tolerated.

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