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Annu Rev Pathol. 2009;4:365-98. doi: 10.1146/annurev.pathol.4.110807.092239.

NOD-like receptors: role in innate immunity and inflammatory disease.

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Departments of Pathology and Internal Medicine and the Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.


The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a specialized group of intracellular receptors that represent a key component of the host innate immune system. Since the discovery of the first NLR almost 10 years ago, the study of this special class of microbial sensors has burgeoned; consequently, a better understanding of the mechanism by which these receptors recognize microbes and other danger signals and of how they activate inflammatory signaling pathways has emerged. Moreover, in addition to their primary role in host defense against invading pathogens, their ability to regulate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling, interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta) production, and cell death indicates that they are crucial to the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory human diseases.

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