Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nano Lett. 2008 Nov;8(11):3834-8. doi: 10.1021/nl802223f. Epub 2008 Oct 18.

High contrast in vitro and in vivo photoluminescence bioimaging using near infrared to near infrared up-conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ doped fluoride nanophosphors.

Author information

Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-3000, USA.


A new approach for photoluminescence imaging in vitro and in vivo has been shown utilizing near infrared to near infrared (NIR-to-NIR) up-conversion in nanophosphors. This NIR-to-NIR up-conversion process provides deeper light penetration into biological specimen and results in high contrast optical imaging due to absence of an autofluorescence background and decreased light scattering. Aqueous dispersible fluoride (NaYF4) nanocrystals (20-30 nm size) co-doped with the rare earth ions, Tm(3+) and Yb(3+), were synthesized and characterized by TEM, XRD, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In vitro cellular uptake was shown by the PL microscopy visualizing the characteristic emission of Tm(3+) at approximately 800 nm excited with 975 nm. No apparent cytotoxicity was observed. Subsequent animal imaging studies were performed using Balb-c mice injected intravenously with up-converting nanophosphors, demonstrating the high contrast PL imaging in vivo.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for American Chemical Society Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center