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Pediatr Clin North Am. 1991 Oct;38(5):1053-88.

Craniofacial growth from infancy through adulthood. Background and clinical implications.

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Ohio State University College of Dentistry, Columbus.


The purpose of this article was to enable the pediatrician to identify and understand the implications of common facial growth problems in children and adolescents. Problems with facial growth can result in aesthetic and functional complaints. Using a simple method of clinical evaluation, the pediatrician can identify facial growth problems in the anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dimensions. These problems can then be referred for evaluation and treatment by a variety of means. By adopting a contemporary view that facial growth is the result of genetic and environmental factors (some of which are functional), growth modification becomes a real possibility. Unfortunately, some problems must be camouflaged or treated by combined surgical and orthodontic means. Continued growth in early adulthood can enhance or detract from treatment results obtained in childhood or adolescence. These dynamic properties of the face make management of facial growth challenging but generally rewarding and successful because of substantial aesthetic and functional improvements.

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