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J Pharm Sci. 2009 Jun;98(6):2180-97. doi: 10.1002/jps.21572.

Methodology for development of a physiological model incorporating CYP3A and P-glycoprotein for the prediction of intestinal drug absorption.

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School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom.


The small intestine poses a major barrier to the efficient absorption of orally administered therapeutics. Intestinal epithelial cells are an extremely important site for extrahepatic clearance, primarily due to prominent P-glycoprotein-mediated active efflux and the presence of cytochrome P450s. We describe a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model which incorporates geometric variations, pH alterations and descriptions of the abundance and distribution of cytochrome 3A and P-glycoprotein along the length of the small intestine. Simulations using preclinical in vitro data for model drugs were performed to establish the influence of P-glycoprotein efflux, cytochrome 3A metabolism and passive permeability on drug available for absorption within the enterocytes. The fraction of drug escaping the enterocyte (F(G)) for 10 cytochrome 3A substrates with a range of intrinsic metabolic clearances were simulated. Following incorporation of P-glycoprotein in vitro efflux ratios all predicted F(G) values were within 20% of observed in vivo F(G). The presence of P-glycoprotein increased the level of cytochrome 3A drug metabolism by up to 12-fold in the distal intestine. F(G) was highly sensitive to changes in intrinsic metabolic clearance but less sensitive to changes in intestinal drug permeability. The model will be valuable for quantifying aspects of intestinal drug absorption and distribution.

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