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Fungal Genet Biol. 2008 Dec;45(12):1608-15. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2008.09.006. Epub 2008 Sep 27.

Identification of a novel polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) gene required for the biosynthesis of cyclopiazonic acid in Aspergillus oryzae.

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  • 1Noda Institute for Scientific Research, 399 Noda, Noda, Chiba 278-0037, Japan.


Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is a mycotoxin produced by several strains of Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Aspergillus oryzae strains used in fermented foods do not produce CPA; however, several wild-type A. oryzae strains produce CPA. Here, we identified a novel polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) gene involved in CPA production by comparing the telomere-adjacent region of a CPA-producing strain (A. oryzae NBRC 4177) with that of a nonproducing strain (A. oryzae RIB40). NBRC 4177 has an additional 17-18-kb sequence beyond the region corresponding to the telomere repeat in RIB40 and this additional regions contains 3' region of the PKS-NRPS gene, while RIB40 has only the 5' region of the PKS-NRPS gene. Gene disruption of the PKS-NRPS gene in NBRC 4177 resulted in elimination of CPA production. Thus, the PKS-NRPS gene is required for CPA biosynthesis, and the truncation of this gene is presumed as one of the determinants of CPA nonproductivity in A. oryzae RIB40.

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