Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Dec;122(6):1169-1177.e16. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2008.08.018. Epub 2008 Oct 11.

Hypomorphic nuclear factor-kappaB essential modulator mutation database and reconstitution system identifies phenotypic and immunologic diversity.

Author information

1
Division of Rheumatology, Joseph Stokes Jr Research Institute, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Human hypomorphic nuclear factor-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) mutations cause diverse clinical and immunologic phenotypes, but understanding of their scope and mechanistic links to immune function and genotype is incomplete.

OBJECTIVE:

We created and analyzed a database of hypomorphic NEMO mutations to determine the spectrum of phenotypes and their associated genotypes and sought to establish a standardized NEMO reconstitution system to obtain mechanistic insights.

METHODS:

Phenotypes of 72 individuals with NEMO mutations were compiled. NEMO L153R and C417R were investigated further in a reconstitution system. TNF-alpha or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5 signals were evaluated for nuclear factor-kappaB activation, programmed cell death, and A20 gene expression.

RESULTS:

Thirty-two different mutations were identified; 53% affect the zinc finger domain. Seventy-seven percent were associated with ectodermal dysplasia, 86% with serious pyogenic infection, 39% with mycobacterial infection, 19% with serious viral infection, and 23% with inflammatory diseases. Thirty-six percent of individuals died at a mean age of 6.4 years. CD40, IL-1, TNF-alpha, TLR, and T-cell receptor signals were impaired in 15 of 16 (94%), 6 of 7 (86%), 9 of 11 (82%), 9 of 14 (64%), and 7 of 18 (39%), respectively. Hypomorphism-reconstituted NEMO-deficient cells demonstrated partial restoration of NEMO functions. Although both L153R and C417R impaired TLR and TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation, L153R also increased TNF-alpha-induced programmed cell death with decreased A20 expression.

CONCLUSION:

Distinct NEMO hypomorphs define specific disease and genetic characteristics. A reconstitution system can identify attributes of hypomorphisms independent of an individual's genetic background. Apoptosis susceptibility in L153R reconstituted cells defines a specific phenotype of this mutation that likely contributes to the excessive inflammation with which it is clinically associated.

PMID:
18851874
PMCID:
PMC2710968
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaci.2008.08.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms

Substances

Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center