Send to

Choose Destination
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2008 Oct;6(5):725-32. doi: 10.1586/14787210.6.5.725.

Antibiotic resistance in the absence of antimicrobial use: mechanisms and implications.

Author information

Università di Siena, Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare, Sezione di Microbiologia, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Siena, Italy.


The selective pressure generated by the use of antibiotics in clinical, veterinary, husbandry and agricultural practices is considered the major factor responsible for the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria since the beginning of the antibiotic era. However, recent studies have consistently demonstrated that acquired resistance traits can also be found in bacteria isolated from humans and wild animals not subjected to significant antibiotic exposure and living in remote areas of the planet. The scope of this article is to review and discuss the current knowledge on this intriguing phenomenon, which underscores the complexity of the mechanisms involved in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance and bears some relevant implications to the design and success of resistance-control strategies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center