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Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2008 Oct;7(10):1216-24. doi: 10.1039/b802588f. Epub 2008 Jun 4.

Characterization of cytosolic tetrapyrrole-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Author information

1
Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Tokyo, 153-8902, Japan.

Abstract

In plant cells, tetrapyrroles are synthesized in plastids and distributed to numerous organelles to function in various vital activities. However, molecular mechanisms of tetrapyrroles trafficking in plant cells are poorly understood. In animal cells, experimental evidence suggests that the p22HBP/SOUL family are cytosolic heme carrier proteins functioning in heme trafficking. In this study, we characterized Arabidopsis cytosolic heme-binding proteins (cHBPs) homologous to the p22HBP/SOUL family. Six homologous genes were identified in the complete genome of Arabidopsis. Deduced amino acid sequences of two genes contained N-terminal amino acid extensions, presumably functioning as signal peptides to organelles. No such extension was observed in the other four genes, but one gene contained a ten-base deletion in its open reading frame, suggesting it maybe a pseudogene. The remaining three genes encoding putative cHBPs, designated cHBP1, cHBP2 and cHBP3, were further analyzed. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that cHBP1 was preferentially expressed in leaves, while cHBP2 was predominantly expressed in roots. A tetrapyrrole binding assay using recombinant proteins of cHBP1 and cHBP2 revealed that both cHBPs bind to heme, protoporphyrin IX, and Mg-protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester with distinct dissociation constants (Kd) of approximately submicro molar concentrations. Low temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra showed that both cHBP1 and cHBP2 bind high-spin type heme. When mixed with apo-horse radish peroxidase (HRP), heme-bound cHBP1 and cHBP2 showed comparable abilities for reconstitution of HRP activity, showing that both cHBPs bind heme reversibly. These results suggest that both cHBP1 and cHBP2 have properties suitable for tetrapyrrole carrier proteins and function in distinct organs in plant cells.

PMID:
18846286
DOI:
10.1039/b802588f
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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