Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Prev Med. 2008 Dec;35(6):598-601. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.09.011. Epub 2008 Oct 8.

Gender difference among smoking, adiponectin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

Author information

Palokka Health Centre, Central Hospital of Middle Finland, Jyväskylä, Finland.



Subclinical inflammation is a novel risk factor of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. An inverse association between plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance has been previously shown. Elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) predict future cardiovascular events. Smoking has been proven to connect with inflammatory markers. There is also evidence of a difference between genders in pro-inflammation. This study aimed to examine the connections among adiponectin, hs-CRP, and smoking and to determine possible gender differences in these associations.


Included were 365 men and 476 women; all were nondiabetic and middle-aged. Daily smoking subjects were considered to be smokers. Adiponectin and hs-CRP were analyzed. Data were collected in 1997-1998, and cytokines were analyzed in 2003.


Thirty-five percent of the men and 22% of the women were smokers. In women, the adiponectin level was significantly lower in smokers (6.94+/-3.27 microg/ml) compared to nonsmokers (8.27+/-4.72 microg/ml, p=0.0017). This association remained significant after adjustment for age and BMI (p=0.0061). The hs-CRP level was significantly higher in smoking men (1.59+/-1.71 pg/ml) compared to nonsmoking men (1.17+/-1.41 pg/ml, p=0.018). This result remained after adjustment for age and BMI (p=0.0056). When smokers were compared to nonsmokers, there was no difference in adiponectin among men or in hs-CRP among women.


In the nondiabetic population, smoking associates differently with subclinical inflammation between genders, with a decreased adiponectin level in women and with an increased hs-CRP level in men.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons


    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center