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Thromb Haemost. 2008 Oct;100(4):563-75.

Factor IX: Insights from knock-out and genetically engineered mice.

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Department of Pediatrics, Hematology/Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7352, USA.


The study of coagulation factors has been rapidly advanced by studies performed in genetically engineered mouse strains. Investigation of factor IX (FIX) has benefited from excellent gene-deleted mouse models that recapitulate many of the features of human haemophilia B. Moreover, advanced positional cloning techniques and availability of technology to allow not only knock-out mice, but also knock-in and knock-down mice, provide new opportunities to observe genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlations regarding FIX, as well as the interaction of FIX with inflammatory, immune, and tissue repair systems. In this paper, available FIX knock-out mice and additional haemophilia B mouse models are reviewed specifically in regards to observations these models have facilitated concerning:factor IX gene expression and factor IX protein pharmacokinetics; the role of FIX in haemostasis, thrombosis and wound healing; insights into coagulation FIX arising out of gene therapy applications in haemophilia mouse models; immunology of tolerance or loss of tolerance of FIX and inhibitor antibody formation.

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