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Immunol Rev. 2008 Oct;225:85-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2008.00672.x.

Immune evasion during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of swine.

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Plum Island Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Greenport, NY 11944-0848, USA.


The interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. In acute viral infections, this balance involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induction of clinical disease in cloven hoofed animals exposed to infection. Viral shedding is extensive before the equally rapid resolution of acute disease. This positive strand RNA virus is an extremely successful pathogen, due in part to the ability to interrupt the innate immune response. Previous reviews have described the inhibition of cellular innate responses in the infected cell both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present a review of virus inhibition of cells that are a source of antiviral function in swine. Particularly in the case of dendritic cells and natural killer cells, the virus has evolved mechanisms to interrupt the normal function of these important mediators of innate function, even though these cells are not infected by the virus. Understanding how this virus subverts the innate response will provide valuable information for the development of rapidly acting biotherapeutics to use in response to an outbreak of FMDV.

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