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Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Feb 15;81(3):500-8. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvn261. Epub 2008 Oct 3.

Macro- and micronutrient dyshomeostasis in the adverse structural remodelling of myocardium.

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Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 920 Madison Ave., Suite 300, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.


Hypertension and heart failure are worldwide health problems of ever-increasing proportions. A failure of the heart, during either systolic and/or diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, has its origins rooted in an adverse structural, biochemical, and molecular remodelling of myocardium that involves its cellular constituents, extracellular matrix, and intramural coronary vasculature. Herein we focus on the pathogenic role of a dyshomeostasis of several macro- (i.e. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and micronutrients (i.e. Zn(2+), Se(2+), and vitamin D) in contributing to adverse remodelling of the myocardium and its failure as a pulsatile muscular pump. An improved understanding of how these macro- and micronutrients account for the causes and consequences of adverse myocardial remodelling carries with it the potential of identifying new biomarkers predictive of risk, onset and progression, and response to intervention(s), which could be monitored non-invasively and serially over time. Moreover, such incremental knowledge will serve as the underpinning to the development of novel strategies aimed at preventing and/or regressing the ongoing adverse remodelling of myocardium. The time is at hand to recognize the importance of macro- and micronutrient dyshomeostasis in the evaluation and management of hypertension and heart failure.

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