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J AAPOS. 2009 Feb;13(1):58-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2008.07.006. Epub 2008 Oct 4.

The visual status of children ages 3 to 6 years in the vision screening program in Taiwan.

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Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.



To investigate the current status of myopia, amblyopia, and strabismus of preschoolers in Taiwan.


The records of a vision screening performed in 2005 at 4 preschools by a tertiary referral medical center in Kaohsiung, Taiwan were reviewed. Cycloplegic refraction, visual acuity by E chart, stereopsis by Titmus and National Taiwan University tests, and ocular alignment were analyzed.


Most (97.7%) of the children (n = 618) were able to perform visual acuity testing. There was good correlation between the results of cycloplegic spherical equivalent obtained by autorefraction and by retinoscopy (r = 0.934, p < 0.001). The prevalence of amblyopia was about 5%. A trend was found between amblyopia morbidity and the 4 age groups when a single criterion (best-corrected visual acuity <0.7) was used for all ages (decreased amblyopia incidence with increased age; p = 0.028, chi(2) test for trend). The prevalence of myopia was 3.0%, 4.2%, 4.7%, and 12.2% at ages 3, 4, 5, and 6 years, respectively. There was a trend of increased myopia with increased age (p = 0.021, chi(2) test for trend).


The prevalence of myopia in children ages 3 to 6 years in Taiwan was high compared with the prevalence in other countries. Criteria for amblyopia based on age difference and on the types of visual acuity test are recommended.

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