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J Athl Train. 2008 Sep-Oct;43(5):489-504. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-43.5.489.

Nutrition concepts for elite distance runners based on macronutrient and energy expenditure.

Author information

1
Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Elite distance runners (EDR) must optimize their nutrition to maintain their demanding training schedules.

OBJECTIVE:

To develop a nutrition concept for EDR based on energy and macronutrient expenditures.

DESIGN:

This theoretical study provides calculations for macronutrient and energy expenditures of EDR. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of EDR were assumed based on average real EDR.

SETTING:

University of Kiel.

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:

Three prototypic types of male EDR described in the literature as type I (TI; body mass = 72 kg, respiratory quotient = 0.9 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers = 60% to 70%), type II (TII; body mass = 67 kg, respiratory quotient = 0.82 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers = 50%), and type III (TIII; body mass = 60 kg, respiratory quotient = 0.75 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers = 30% to 40%).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

We calculated the macronutrient and energy expenditures of the 3 types of EDR according to body mass, respiratory quotient, and percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers.

RESULTS:

We found that the average energy expenditure was 3750 kcal . d(-1) for TI runners, 3463 kcal . d(-1) for TII runners, and 3079 kcal . d(-1) for TIII runners. The carbohydrate (CHO) expenditure reached an average value of 10.0 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) for TI runners, 8.0 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) for TII runners, and 4.7 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) for TIII runners. When the EDR accomplished running sessions at a pace >or=100% of maximum oxygen consumption, all types of runners had a CHO demand of about 10 g . kg(-1) . d(-1). The TI and TII runners need a CHO intake of 8 to 10 g . kg(-1) . d(-1). For the TIII runners, a CHO intake >6 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) is necessary during anaerobic training sessions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Nutrition concepts must be differentiated for EDR according to metabolic and anthropometric characteristics of the runners and their special training emphases.

KEYWORDS:

diet, endurance; sports

PMID:
18833312
PMCID:
PMC2547869
DOI:
10.4085/1062-6050-43.5.489
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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