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Opt Lett. 2008 Oct 1;33(19):2281-3.

Electro-optic integration of embedded electrodes and waveguides in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser.

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State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Instiute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.


We describe the fabrication of a Mach-Zehnder optical modulator in LiNbO(3) by femtosecond laser micromachining, which is composed of optical waveguides inscripted by a femtosecond laser and embedded microelectrodes subsequently fabricated using femtosecond laser ablation and selective electroless plating. A half-wave voltage close to 19 V is achieved at a wavelength of 632.8 nm with an interaction length of 2.6 mm. This simple and cost-effective technique opens up new opportunities for fabricating integrated electro-optic devices.

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