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Ultrasound Med Biol. 2009 Jan;35(1):79-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2008.07.004. Epub 2008 Oct 2.

A real-time freehand ultrasound calibration system with automatic accuracy feedback and control.

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School of Computing, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.


This article describes a fully automatic, real-time, freehand ultrasound calibration system. The system was designed to be simple and sterilizable, intended for operating-room usage. The calibration system employed an automatic-error-retrieval and accuracy-control mechanism based on a set of ground-truth data. Extensive validations were conducted on a data set of 10,000 images in 50 independent calibration trials to thoroughly investigate the accuracy, robustness, and performance of the calibration system. On average, the calibration accuracy (measured in three-dimensional reconstruction error against a known ground truth) of all 50 trials was 0.66 mm. In addition, the calibration errors converged to submillimeter in 98% of all trials within 12.5 s on average. Overall, the calibration system was able to consistently, efficiently and robustly achieve high calibration accuracy with real-time performance.

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