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Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Oct;27(10 Suppl):S123-5. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318168b76f.

Current status of vaccines for parainfluenza virus infections.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.


Parainfluenza viruses (PIV) have been generally disregarded as pathogens in spite of their importance in pediatric lower respiratory illness. Because PIVs account for 17% of hospitalized illness associated virus isolation, the development of PIV vaccine would be a major advance in preventing lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. We will review in detail several PIV vaccine candidates and recent newer approaches to PIV vaccine development. Intranasally administered bovine PIV3 (bPIV3) vaccine and cold-adapted PIV3 vaccine have been evaluated throughout the pediatric age spectrum. BPIV3 does not give a robust response to the heterotypic human strain although seroconversion rate to bPIV3 is 57-65%. However, bPIV3 vaccine is being used as an attenuated backbone for insertion of human PIV3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion (F) proteins and a surface protein, F, of respiratory syncytial virus. The effectiveness of this vaccine against both PIV3 and RSV challenge has been demonstrated in African green monkeys. The cold-adapted PIV3 vaccine has been extensively evaluated and is safe and immunogenic in seronegative children with a seroconversion rate of 79%. These promising candidates deserve to enter into efficacy trials both for their ability to prevent PIV3 disease and as a model of protection against respiratory illness by mucosal vaccination.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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