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Semin Immunol. 2009 Feb;21(1):42-50. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2008.08.004. Epub 2008 Sep 25.

Augmentation of antibody responses by retinoic acid and costimulatory molecules.

Author information

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 110 Chandlee Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA. acr6@psu.edu

Abstract

Antibody production is crucial for a successful vaccine response. Beyond the ability of vitamin A (VA) and its active metabolite, all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) to restore growth in VA-deficient animals, supplementation with VA and/or treatment with RA can augment antibody responses in both VA-deficient and VA-adequate animals. RA alone, and in combination with stimuli that are ligands for the Toll-like receptor family, can augment the adaptive immune response leading to a heightened primary antibody response, and a stronger recall response upon restimulation. Mechanisms may include regulation of cell populations, type 1/type 2 cytokines, and B cell-related transcription factors, leading to accelerated B cell maturation.

PMID:
18819820
PMCID:
PMC2615053
DOI:
10.1016/j.smim.2008.08.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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