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Int J Cancer. 2008 Dec 15;123(12):2840-8. doi: 10.1002/ijc.23888.

Phosphoglycerate kinase 1-overexpressing lung cancer cells reduce cyclooxygenase 2 expression and promote anti-tumor immunity in vivo.

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  • 1Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC.


In addition to the known function in the glycolytic pathway, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK-1) promotes reduction of plasmin disulfide bonds leading to angiostatin formation and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In this study, the effects of PGK-1 on anti- tumor immunity against lung cancer were evaluated using the Tet-Off control of PGK-1 expression in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-1). There was no significant difference in cell proliferation between parental LLC-1 and LLC-1 transduced with PGK-1 (PGK-LLC-1). However, expression of PGK-1 was found to limit tumor growth in mice subcutaneously injected with the cell lines and tumor growth was restored after doxycycline treatment. In addition, the cell invasion ability of PGK-LLC-1 became weaker than that of LLC-1. Expressions of COX-2, TGF-beta1 and PGE2 were all found to be down-regulated in PGK-LLC-1. PGK-LLC-1 cells treated with doxycycline recovered their COX-2 protein expression. In the presence of conditioned medium from PGK-LLC-1, the endothelial cell migration was reduced. Moreover, PGK-LLC-1 also stimulated T lymphocytes to express higher levels of Th1 cytokine (IFN-gamma) and lower levels of IL-10 in comparison with parental LLC-1. PGK-LLC-1 cells restored the growth rate in immunodeficient mice when compared with the growth rate in normal mice. In the tissue sections, reduced COX-2 expressions and marked infiltrated CD3 T lymphocytes were observed in the PGK-LLC-1 injected group. These findings indicate that overexpression of PGK-1 in LLC-1 reduces the COX-2 expression, and, in turn, affect PGE2, cell invasion, angiogenesis, and the immune functions, and finally inhibit the tumor progression.

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