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J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;60(10):1365-74. doi: 10.1211/jpp/60.10.0013.

Astaxanthin, a dietary carotenoid, protects retinal cells against oxidative stress in-vitro and in mice in-vivo.

Author information

1
Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Molecular Pharmacology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 5-6-1 Mitahora-higashi, Gifu 502-8585, Japan.

Abstract

We have investigated whether astaxanthin exerted neuroprotective effects in retinal ganglion cells in-vitro and in-vivo. In-vitro, retinal damage was induced by 24-h hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure or serum deprivation, and cell viability was measured using a WST assay. In cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5, a rat ganglion cell-line transformed using E1A virus), astaxanthin inhibited the neurotoxicity induced by H2O2 or serum deprivation, and reduced the intracellular oxidation induced by various reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, astaxanthin decreased the radical generation induced by serum deprivation in RGC-5. In mice in-vivo, astaxanthin (100 mg kg(-1), p.o., four times) reduced the retinal damage (a decrease in retinal ganglion cells and in thickness of inner plexiform layer) induced by intravitreal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) injection. Furthermore, astaxanthin reduced the expressions of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE)-modified protein (indicator of lipid peroxidation) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG; indicator of oxidative DNA damage). These findings indicated that astaxanthin had neuroprotective effects against retinal damage in-vitro and in-vivo, and that its protective effects may have been partly mediated via its antioxidant effects.

PMID:
18812030
DOI:
10.1211/jpp/60.10.0013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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