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J Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 15;198(10):1514-9. doi: 10.1086/592448.

Severe tuberculosis induces unbalanced up-regulation of gene networks and overexpression of IL-22, MIP-1alpha, CCL27, IP-10, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR3, PD1, PDL2, IL-3, IFN-beta, TIM1, and TLR2 but low antigen-specific cellular responses.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.


The immune mechanisms by which early host-mycobacterium interaction leads to the development of severe tuberculosis (TB) remain poorly characterized in humans. Here, we demonstrate that severe TB in juvenile rhesus monkeys down-regulated many genes in the blood but up-regulated selected genes constituting gene networks of Th17 and Th1 responses, T cell activation and migration, and inflammation and chemoattractants in the pulmonary and lymphoid compartments. Overexpression (450-2740-fold) of 13 genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and receptors (IL-22, CCL27, MIP-1alpha, IP-10, CCR4, CCR5, and CXCR3), immune dysfunctional receptors and ligands (PD1 and PDL2), and immune activation elements (IL-3, IFN-beta, TIM1, and TLR2) was seen in tissues, with low antigen-specific cellular responses. Thus, severe TB in macaques features unbalanced up-regulation of immune-gene networks without proportional increases in antigen-specific cellular responses.

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