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Pediatr Radiol. 2008 Nov;38 Suppl 4:S700-6. doi: 10.1007/s00247-008-0951-5. Epub 2008 Sep 23.

Medical simulation: a tool for recognition of and response to risk.

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Division of Emergency Medicine ML 2081, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.


The use of simulation and team training has become an excellent tool to reduce errors in high-risk industry such as the commercial airlines and in the nuclear energy field. The health care industry has begun to use similar tools to improve the outcome of high-risk areas where events are relatively rare but where practice with a tactical team can significantly reduce the chance of bad outcome. There are two parts to this review: first, we review the rationale of why simulation is a key element in improving our error rate, and second, we describe specific tools that have great use at the clinical bedside for improving the care of patients. These cross different (i.e. medical and surgical) specialties and practices within specialties in the health care setting. Tools described will include the pinch, brief/debriefing, read-backs, call-outs, dynamic skepticism, assertive statements, two-challenge rules, checklists and step back (hold points). Examples will assist the clinician in practical daily use to improve their bedside care of children.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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