Send to

Choose Destination
Semin Immunol. 2009 Feb;21(1):14-21. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2008.08.001. Epub 2008 Sep 21.

From the diet to the nucleus: vitamin A and TGF-beta join efforts at the mucosal interface of the intestine.

Author information

La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.


The vitamin A metabolites, including retinoic acid (RA), form ligands for retinoic acid-related nuclear receptors and together they play pleiotropic roles in various biological processes. Recently, we described that RA also functions as a key modulator of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-driven immune deviation, capable of suppressing the differentiation of interleukin-17 secreting T helper cells (T(H)17) and conversely promoting the generation of Foxp3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells. This review will focus on the role of RA in the reciprocal TGF-beta-driven differentiation of T(H)17 and Treg and on the importance of such regulatory mechanism to control a functional immune system, in particular at the mucosal interface of the intestine.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center