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Vitam Horm. 2008;79:1-44. doi: 10.1016/S0083-6729(08)00401-9.

Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism.

Author information

1
Graduate Field of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

Abstract

Tetrahydrofolate (THF) polyglutamates are a family of cofactors that carry and chemically activate one-carbon units for biosynthesis. THF-mediated one-carbon metabolism is a metabolic network of interdependent biosynthetic pathways that is compartmentalized in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus. One-carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm is required for the synthesis of purines and thymidylate and the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. One-carbon metabolism in the mitochondria is required for the synthesis of formylated methionyl-tRNA; the catabolism of choline, purines, and histidine; and the interconversion of serine and glycine. Mitochondria are also the primary source of one-carbon units for cytoplasmic metabolism. Increasing evidence indicates that folate-dependent de novo thymidylate biosynthesis occurs in the nucleus of certain cell types. Disruption of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is associated with many pathologies and developmental anomalies, yet the biochemical mechanisms and causal metabolic pathways responsible for the initiation and/or progression of folate-associated pathologies have yet to be established. This chapter focuses on our current understanding of mammalian folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism, its cellular compartmentation, and knowledge gaps that limit our understanding of one-carbon metabolism and its regulation.

PMID:
18804690
DOI:
10.1016/S0083-6729(08)00401-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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